Massive duststorms suffocate China

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 22. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:36 (GMT)

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Massive duststorms swept through China over the weekend, bringing record air pollution and near-zero visibility to large regions of eastern China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. The dust will reach South Korea on Tuesday. The dust was kicked up by the strong winds of a cold front that crossed China on Saturday. The winds passed over regions of Mongolia and northwest China that have been suffering from an extended drought. Overgrazing, deforestation, and urban sprawl have combined with the drought to create large regions of new desert with loose soil that was the source of dust for this weekend's duststorm. Heavy duststorms have brought increasing amounts of dangerous particulate matter to Beijing and much of eastern China in recent years, due to the worsening desertification. Beijing issued its highest level of air pollution alert, Level 5, on Saturday.During the height of the duststorm, winds were sustained at 34 mph, gusting to 45 mph, with visibility 1 - 2 miles in heavy dust. Conditions have improved slightly to Level 4 pollution today.


Figure 1. This natural-color image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite shows the dust storm on Saturday, March 20, 2010. Few landmarks or topographic features are recognizable beneath the dust, which covers the lower half of the image and wraps around the right-hand side in a comma shape that terminates in a large ball of dust near image center. The head of the comma marks a center of low pressure of a mid-latitude cyclone crossing the country. Image credit: NASA.


Figure 2. Drought conditions based on a 2-year deficit of precipitation, using the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI). Image credit: UK Global Drought Monitor.

Record air pollution in Hong Kong
The dust storms have brought extremely hazardous air quality to Hong Kong, which has recorded is worst air pollution levels since monitoring began in 1995. Pollution levels Monday were 12 to 14 times the amount recommended by the World Health Organization, and topped out at 400 points. An index of 100 points is considered "very high", 200 is "severe", and can lead to coughing, phlegm and sore throats. The previous record highest pollution level was 202, set in July 2008.

I'll have a new post Wednesday or Thursday.

Jeff Masters

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744. belizeit
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 21:14 (GMT)
New Bloggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg
Member Since: 10.01.2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 915
741. NttyGrtty
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:57 (GMT)
WU Bloggers, it's been fun. Appreciate all the feedback today. I'm out to claim my moving 30 square feet of Hwy 98 with all the other crazies headed west. Tomorrow...
Member Since: 11.02.2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 790
740. Levi32
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:57 (GMT)
Quoting StormW:


My car does fly...LOL!


That's a nice ride Storm :)
Member Since: 24.11.2005 Posts: 628 Comments: 26460
739. Bordonaro
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:54 (GMT)
Would someone please post a detailed atmospheric profile from Dallas-Ft Worth, TX, thanks.
Member Since: 25.08.2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
737. Bordonaro
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:47 (GMT)
Quoting Jeff9641:


Things look ripe for Bordonaro. I would rather have thunderstorms than snow any day. Enjoy your Spring weather finally.


First warning:

BULLETIN - EAS ACTIVATION REQUESTED
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WARNING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE FORT WORTH TX
344 PM CDT WED MAR 24 2010

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN FORT WORTH HAS ISSUED A

* SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WARNING FOR...
WISE COUNTY IN NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS...

* UNTIL 445 PM CDT

* AT 344 PM CDT...NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE METEOROLOGISTS DETECTED A
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM CAPABLE OF PRODUCING QUARTER SIZE HAIL...AND
DAMAGING WINDS IN EXCESS OF 60 MPH. THIS STORM WAS LOCATED NEAR
BRIDGEPORT...AND MOVING NORTHEAST AT 10 MPH.

* THE SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WILL BE NEAR...
BRIDGEPORT AND CHICO BY 350 PM
BOYD BY 420 PM
ALVORD BY 425 PM
DECATUR BY 435 PM

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

FOR YOUR PROTECTION MOVE TO A STURDY SHELTER UNTIL THE STORM HAS
PASSED.

IF YOU ARE CAUGHT OUTSIDE...SEEK SHELTER IN A STRONG BUILDING AND
STAY INSIDE...AWAY FROM WINDOWS UNTIL THE STORM HAS PASSED.

A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL 1000 PM WEDNESDAY
EVENING FOR NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS.

&&

LAT...LON 3343 9738 3313 9739 3301 9776 3300 9790
3301 9791 3324 9792 3344 9760
TIME...MOT...LOC 2044Z 244DEG 10KT 3318 9776

$$
Member Since: 25.08.2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
735. Bordonaro
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:42 (GMT)
Member Since: 25.08.2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
734. NttyGrtty
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:39 (GMT)
733. Send some of that bucolic stuff to the FL panhandle. Getting better here but still cool...
Member Since: 11.02.2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 790
733. BahaHurican
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:34 (GMT)
Hey, yuse guys, this was a great break from an afternoon work load! Especially since this was a pretty somber day at work....

It is a bucolic day here in Nassau, the kind u wish for all year round. I'm enjoying it while I can....
Member Since: 25.10.2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 20742
732. Bordonaro
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:32 (GMT)
At my place in SE Arlington, TX at 3:30PM CDT:

Skies-Pt Cloudy
Temp-75F
Rel Hum-63%
Dew Point-62F
Winds-SE at 6 MPH G 9 MPH
Bar Press-29.79" and falling

A broken line of thunderstorms is about 130 miles west of Arlington, TX. Atmosphere is primed for scattered heavy/severe thunderstorms within the next 3-5hrs!!
Member Since: 25.08.2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
731. NttyGrtty
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:31 (GMT)
Quoting indianrivguy:
Miracles You'll See in the Next 50 Years. Readers Digest February 1950

excerpt;

Following the suggestions of Zworykin and Von Neumann storms are more or less under control. It is easy enough to spot a budding hurricane in the doldrums off Africa. Before it has a chance to gather much strength and speed as it travels westward towards Florida, oil is spread out over the sea and ignited. There is an updraft. Air from the surrounding region, which includes the developing hurricane rushes in to full the void. The rising air condenses so that some of the water in the whirling mass falls as rain.

hahahaha
You mean that wouldn't work? LOL!
Member Since: 11.02.2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 790
730. indianrivguy
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:29 (GMT)
Miracles You'll See in the Next 50 Years. Readers Digest February 1950

excerpt;

Following the suggestions of Zworykin and Von Neumann storms are more or less under control. It is easy enough to spot a budding hurricane in the doldrums off Africa. Before it has a chance to gather much strength and speed as it travels westward towards Florida, oil is spread out over the sea and ignited. There is an updraft. Air from the surrounding region, which includes the developing hurricane rushes in to full the void. The rising air condenses so that some of the water in the whirling mass falls as rain.

hahahaha
Member Since: 23.09.2006 Posts: 1 Comments: 2428
729. Bordonaro
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:28 (GMT)
Member Since: 25.08.2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
728. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:27 (GMT)
and it begins
Member Since: 15.07.2006 Posts: 165 Comments: 52383
727. Bordonaro
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:25 (GMT)

SEL4

URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH NUMBER 34
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
320 PM CDT WED MAR 24 2010

THE NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER HAS ISSUED A
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH FOR PORTIONS OF

PART OF WEST CENTRAL AND NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS

EFFECTIVE THIS WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON AND EVENING FROM 320 PM UNTIL
1000 PM CDT.

HAIL TO 2 INCHES IN DIAMETER...THUNDERSTORM WIND GUSTS TO 70
MPH...AND DANGEROUS LIGHTNING ARE POSSIBLE IN THESE AREAS.

THE SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH AREA IS APPROXIMATELY ALONG AND 60
STATUTE MILES NORTH AND SOUTH OF A LINE FROM 30 MILES SOUTH
SOUTHWEST OF SAN ANGELO TEXAS TO 65 MILES EAST NORTHEAST OF
DALLAS TEXAS. FOR A COMPLETE DEPICTION OF THE WATCH SEE THE
ASSOCIATED WATCH OUTLINE UPDATE (WOUS64 KWNS WOU4).

REMEMBER...A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH MEANS CONDITIONS ARE
FAVORABLE FOR SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS IN AND CLOSE TO THE WATCH
AREA. PERSONS IN THESE AREAS SHOULD BE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR
THREATENING WEATHER CONDITIONS AND LISTEN FOR LATER STATEMENTS
AND POSSIBLE WARNINGS. SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS CAN AND OCCASIONALLY
DO PRODUCE TORNADOES.

DISCUSSION...STORMS ARE DEVELOPING ALONG AND AHEAD OF THE COLD FRONT
MOVING EWD ACROSS NWRN TX. AIR MASS HAS SUFFICIENTLY DESTABILIZED
WITH HEATING TO SUPPORT STRONG UPDRAFTS. WITH THE 40-50KT OF DEEP
LAYER SHEAR AND STEEP MID LEVEL LAPSE RATES A FEW OF THE STORMS ARE
EXPECTED TO BECOME SEVERE AS THEY CONTINUE E/NE INTO THE EVENING
HOURS. PRIMARY THREAT WILL BE LARGE HAIL...HOWEVER THERE IS THE
POSSIBILITY OF A COUPLE OF SUPERCELLS GIVEN THE IMPROVING LOW LEVEL
SHEAR LATER THIS AFTERNOON...ACCOMPANIED BY A DAMAGING WIND THREAT
AS WELL AS LARGE HAIL.

AVIATION...A FEW SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS WITH HAIL SURFACE AND ALOFT
TO 2 INCHES. EXTREME TURBULENCE AND SURFACE WIND GUSTS TO 60
KNOTS. A FEW CUMULONIMBI WITH MAXIMUM TOPS TO 500. MEAN STORM
MOTION VECTOR 24030.


...HALES
Member Since: 25.08.2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
726. Bordonaro
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:24 (GMT)
BULLETIN - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH OUTLINE UPDATE FOR WS 34
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
320 PM CDT WED MAR 24 2010

SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH 34 IS IN EFFECT UNTIL 1000 PM CDT
FOR THE FOLLOWING LOCATIONS

TXC035-049-059-081-083-085-093-095-097-099-113-121-133-139-143-
147-181-193-217-221-231-251-257-267-281-307-319-327-333-363-367-
397-399-411-413-425-429-435-439-441-451-497-250300-
/O.NEW.KWNS.SV.A.0034.100324T2020Z-100325T0300Z/

TX
. TEXAS COUNTIES INCLUDED ARE

BOSQUE BROWN CALLAHAN
COKE COLEMAN COLLIN
COMANCHE CONCHO COOKE
CORYELL DALLAS DENTON
EASTLAND ELLIS ERATH
FANNIN GRAYSON HAMILTON
HILL HOOD HUNT
JOHNSON KAUFMAN KIMBLE
LAMPASAS MASON MCCULLOCH
MENARD MILLS PALO PINTO
PARKER ROCKWALL RUNNELS
SAN SABA SCHLEICHER SOMERVELL
STEPHENS SUTTON TARRANT
TAYLOR TOM GREEN WISE


ATTN...WFO...FWD...SJT...
Member Since: 25.08.2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
725. taco2me61
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:23 (GMT)
Quoting NRAamy:
705. TampaTom 12:50 PM PDT on March 24, 2010
From that article:

Discarded paper table 'linen' and rayon underwear are bought by chemical companies to be converted into candy.



I've got a response....but...it would get me banned fo sho...


lmbo at you..... and yes I know what that is LOL
Member Since: 7.07.2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 3179
724. StormChaser81
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:20 (GMT)
Quoting Jeff9641:
NWS of Melbourne is forecasting a chance of Strong to Severe storms Thursday night & Friday morning in C FL. Dewpoints in the mid to upper 60's tomorrow night with a low of 70. Wow what a change in the weather here!


Pops for Central Florida have been raised to 60% for Thursday Night and Friday.

Now there saying Thunderstorms Likely.

Looks like things have changed...

Orlando Forecast
Member Since: 11.08.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 2315
723. Levi32
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:13 (GMT)
Quoting troy1993:
Hey Levi 32..when is the NAO expected to go back negative again?


It's expected to trend back towards neutral and then negative during the next 5-10 days. Thereafter it becomes unclear, but we will be monitoring it as the hurricane season approaches.

Member Since: 24.11.2005 Posts: 628 Comments: 26460
722. troy1993
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:11 (GMT)
Hey Levi 32..when is the NAO expected to go back negative again?
Member Since: 29.07.2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 208
721. Skyepony (Mod)
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:11 (GMT)
I never said every El Nino would make it go neg.. Not that it even stays in one phase for 20-30 yrs, it more trends or is mostly in one state during that time..look at the pdo cooling after the monster El Nino of 97-98..an influncing factor in extreme years..
Member Since: 10.08.2005 Posts: 156 Comments: 36167
720. StormChaser81
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:10 (GMT)
Quoting jeffs713:

Sometimes, I think we would be better off with the 1950's option, rather than whats in some of our foods now as-is.

Also, it gives a new meaning to the term "GIGO". (Garbage In, Garbage Out)


But garbage is so good, is that mercury I taste, nope its arsenic, yum.

Member Since: 11.08.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 2315
718. jeffs713
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:05 (GMT)
Quoting NRAamy:
705. TampaTom 12:50 PM PDT on March 24, 2010
From that article:

Discarded paper table 'linen' and rayon underwear are bought by chemical companies to be converted into candy.



I've got a response....but...it would get me banned fo sho...

Sometimes, I think we would be better off with the 1950's option, rather than whats in some of our foods now as-is.

Also, it gives a new meaning to the term "GIGO". (Garbage In, Garbage Out)
Member Since: 3.08.2008 Posts: 16 Comments: 5793
717. TampaTom
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:02 (GMT)
More from that Popular Mechanics article:

In the Orwell Helicopter Corporation's plant, only a few troubleshooters are visible, and these respond to the lights that flare whenever a vacuum tube burns out or there is a short circuit. By holes punched in a roll of paper, every operation necessary to produce a helicopter is indicated.

YES! 1950's writers calling for vacuum tubes in 2000... freakin' awesome!
Member Since: 20.06.2005 Posts: 22 Comments: 1050
716. Patrap
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:01 (GMT)
Quoting NRAamy:
Quoting Patrap:
I think we all just dated ourselves ...lol



remember the Mission to Mars ride at Disneyland?

:)



O yeah,..and dat Knots Berry Farm Train too.
Member Since: 3.07.2005 Posts: 415 Comments: 125715
715. NttyGrtty
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 20:01 (GMT)
Quoting NRAamy:
Quoting Patrap:
I think we all just dated ourselves ...lol



remember the Mission to Mars ride at Disneyland?

:)

I remember being amazed by the jet pack pilot at Disneyland in the mid-60's...
Member Since: 11.02.2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 790
714. jeffs713
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:59 (GMT)
Quoting TampaTom:


Got that right. I read a book in grade school that families would be taking vacations to space stations by 1979. What gives?

Politics.
Member Since: 3.08.2008 Posts: 16 Comments: 5793
713. NRAamy
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:59 (GMT)
Quoting Patrap:
I think we all just dated ourselves ...lol



remember the Mission to Mars ride at Disneyland?

:)

Member Since: 24.01.2007 Posts: 316 Comments: 31944
712. NRAamy
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:57 (GMT)
705. TampaTom 12:50 PM PDT on March 24, 2010
From that article:

Discarded paper table 'linen' and rayon underwear are bought by chemical companies to be converted into candy.



I've got a response....but...it would get me banned fo sho...
Member Since: 24.01.2007 Posts: 316 Comments: 31944
711. TampaTom
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:57 (GMT)
Quoting Patrap:
I think we all just dated ourselves ...lol


Got that right. I read a book in grade school that families would be taking vacations to space stations by 1979. What gives?
Member Since: 20.06.2005 Posts: 22 Comments: 1050
710. atmoaggie
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:56 (GMT)
Quoting Skyepony:
Dust effects on SST

It is well-known that aerosols reflect sunlight, and that aerosol optical thickness in the tropical Atlantic (especially during hurricane season) can be affected by SAL dust. New results are showing that SST changes in the tropical Atlantic can be attributed to alterations of shortwave forcing by SAL aerosols.

Lead/Lag correlations between dust and SST over the main development region.

A simple radiative transfer model utilizing data from the AVHRR dust algorithm shows that temperatures over the Atlantic TC genesis region can be depressed by more than 1-degree Celsius due to the presence of significant SAL aerosols, and that there is a distinct trend in forcing since the start of the record.

Good!

But, the MDR dust effects are very short-lived...

So, given this "up to one C" how long do you think the dust has to stay there for a PDO phase change lasting 30 years?
Member Since: 16.08.2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
709. Patrap
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:55 (GMT)
I think we all just dated ourselves ...lol
Member Since: 3.07.2005 Posts: 415 Comments: 125715
708. Patrap
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:55 (GMT)


Lindzen on negative climate feedback
30 03 2009

NEW 4/10/09: There is an update to this post, see below the %u201Cread the rest of this entry%u201D %u2013 Anthony


From 1985 until 1989 the models and observations are more or less the same %u2013 they have, in fact, been tuned to be so. However, with the warming after 1989, the observations characteristically exceed 7 times the model values. Recall that if the observations were only 2-3 times what the models produce, it would correspond to no feedback. What we see is much more than this implying strong negative feedback. Note that the ups and downs of both the observations and the model (forced by observed sea surface temperature) follow the ups and downs of temperature (not shown).

Note that these results were sufficiently surprising that they were confirmed by at least 4 other groups:

Chen, J., B.E. Carlson, and A.D. Del Genio, 2002: Evidence for strengthening of the tropical general circulation in the 1990s. Science, 295, 838-841.

Cess, R.D. and P.M. Udelhofen, 2003: Climate change during 1985 1999: Cloud interactions determined from satellite measurements. Geophys. Res. Ltrs., 30, No. 1, 1019, doi:10.1029/2002GL016128.

Hatzidimitriou, D., I. Vardavas, K. G. Pavlakis, N. Hatzianastassiou, C. Matsoukas, and E. Drakakis (2004) On the decadal increase in the tropical mean outgoing longwave radiation for the period 1984%u20132000. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 1419 1425.

Clement, A.C. and B. Soden (2005) The sensitivity of the tropical-mean radiation budget. J. Clim., 18, 3189-3203.

The preceding authors did not dwell on the profound implications of these results they had not intended a test of model feedbacks! Rather, they mostly emphasized that the differences had to arise from cloud behavior (a well acknowledged weakness of current models). However, as noted by Chou and Lindzen (2005, Comments on Examination of the Decadal Tropical Mean ERBS Nonscanner Radiation Data for the Iris Hypothesis, J. Climate, 18, 2123-2127), the results imply a strong negative feedback regardless of what one attributes this to.

The Bottom Line

The earths climate (in contrast to the climate in current climate GCMs) is dominated by a strong net negative feedback. Climate sensitivity is on the order of 0.3C, and such warming as may arise from increasing greenhouse gases will be indistinguishable from the fluctuations in climate that occur naturally from processes internal to the climate system itself.

An aside on Feedbacks

Here is an easily appreciated example of positive and negative feedback. In your car, the gas and brake pedals act as negative feedbacks to reduce speed when you are going too fast and increase it when you are going too slow. If someone were to reverse the position of the pedals without informing you, then they would act as positive feedbacks: increasing your speed when you are going too fast, and slowing you down when you are going too slow.

The Perturbed Greenhouse
If one adds greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, one is adding to the blanket that is inhibiting the emission of heat radiation (also commonly referred to as infrared radiation or long wave radiation). This causes the temperature of the earth to increase until equilibrium with the sun is reestablished.

For example, if one simply doubles the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, the temperature increase is about 1C.


If, however, water vapor and clouds respond to the increase in temperature in such a manner as to further enhance the blanketing, then we have what is called a positive feedback, and the temperature needed to reestablish equilibrium will be increased. In the climate GCMs (General Circulation Models) referred to by the IPCC (the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), this new temperature ranges from roughly 1.5C to 5C.
The equilibrium response to a doubling of CO2 (including the effects of feedbacks) is commonly referred to as the climate sensitivity.

Two Important Points

1. Equilibration takes time.
2. The feedbacks are responses to temperature not to CO2 increases per se.
Member Since: 3.07.2005 Posts: 415 Comments: 125715
707. Levi32
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:53 (GMT)
Quoting atmoaggie:
I wonder what the Hadley cell pattern was during the times when the Sahara was not a desert.

"ScienceDaily (Nov. 30, 2009) %u2014

........

........

........

Can you imagine the CV hurricane season if the Sahel resembled a tropical forest??!!??!!


Lol, no, a tropical forest Sahel means a smaller Saharan Desert, if there even was a desert at all in such conditions. This would take away the strong African Easterly Jet that results from the severe contrast in temperature and moisture between the Saharan Desert and the Gulf of Guinea to the south. That would result in either very weak tropical waves or no tropical waves at all, leaving the Atlantic on its own to generate its own tropical disturbances, like the NW Pacific. It is a funny irony, but without the desert, we probably wouldn't have tropical waves, the primary source of Atlantic hurricanes.
Member Since: 24.11.2005 Posts: 628 Comments: 26460
706. Patrap
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:50 (GMT)


Member Since: 3.07.2005 Posts: 415 Comments: 125715
705. TampaTom
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:50 (GMT)
From that article:

Discarded paper table 'linen' and rayon underwear are bought by chemical companies to be converted into candy.

Oh, Dear God.... Gross!

Member Since: 20.06.2005 Posts: 22 Comments: 1050
704. PcolaDan
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:49 (GMT)




Member Since: 22.08.2008 Posts: 12 Comments: 6010
703. Ossqss
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:49 (GMT)
Quoting Patrap:
We were promised flying car's when we were little in da 60's.

We want da flying cars.


Whoomp der it is.... :)

Hummm, ya did not say anything about the landing part. LoL

Member Since: 12.06.2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8183
702. PcolaDan
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:47 (GMT)
Quoting NRAamy:
689. Patrap 12:36 PM PDT on March 24, 2010
We were promised flying car's when we were little in da 60's.

We want da flying cars.


I'd settle for a good hair day....


What's hair???
Member Since: 22.08.2008 Posts: 12 Comments: 6010
701. Patrap
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:45 (GMT)




Member Since: 3.07.2005 Posts: 415 Comments: 125715
700. Skyepony (Mod)
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:42 (GMT)
This is the html version of the file http://www.ofcm.gov/ihc07/Presentations/posters/P-18_Evan(poster).ppt.

West African dust outbreaks and the relationship with North Atlantic hurricanes


Amato T. Evan, Christopher S. Velden, Andrew K. Heidinger & Jason Dunion

2006

The Saharan Air Layer forms over the Saharan desert region as a warm, well-mixed, dry, and dusty air mass, which under the right synoptic conditions can advect from

West Africa into the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The Saharan Air Layer rides over the Atlantic marine boundary layer and can be a significant tropospheric feature as it transits across the North Atlantic, often seen as far removed from the source as the Caribbean (~7,000 km west of the Sahara Desert).

Dry air intrusion into the storm, promoting downdrafts and disrupting the convective organization within the tropical cyclone vortex.

2) The midlevel jet found within the Saharan Air Layer increases the local vertical wind shear.


3) The radiative effects of the dust in the Saharan Air Layer may enhance the preexisting trade wind inversion.


Evan et al. [2006] looked at a 25-year satellite record of dustiness, where dust is used as a tracer for the SAL , and defined as a significant signature of mineral-based aerosols (Saharan dust). They show that hurricane seasons with increased SAL dustiness over the Atlantic basin exhibits less tropical cyclone activity than those seasons with lower levels.


Dunion and Velden [2004] suggest that the Saharan Air Layer could inhibit the formation, or reduce the intensity of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic through three primary mechanisms:


Conceptual model of the SAL from Karyampudi et al. [1999]


Observations of the interaction between Hurricane Erin and the SAL (depicted as yellow/red colors in the satellite-derived SAL product imagery, available on the CIMSS tropical cyclone web site [Dunion and Velden, 2004].


The images on the left are of tropical cyclone days, and the maps on the right are of dust coverage derived from an AVHRR algorithm. Both displays represent average values over the period August 20 through September 30 for their respective years [Evan et al., 2006]

Time series analysis of dust and tropical cyclone activity over the tropical North Atlantic reveals a robust negative correlation between the two.

Removing years likely affected by ENSO, and another with a data gap, shows an even more significant linear relationship.

According to the AVHRR dust product, 2006 was below average for dust activity relative to the 25-year mean. However, the dust loadings for August and September were higher than they have been for the last several years.

Dust effects on SST

It is well-known that aerosols reflect sunlight, and that aerosol optical thickness in the tropical Atlantic (especially during hurricane season) can be affected by SAL dust. New results are showing that SST changes in the tropical Atlantic can be attributed to alterations of shortwave forcing by SAL aerosols.

Lead/Lag correlations between dust and SST over the main development region.

A simple radiative transfer model utilizing data from the AVHRR dust algorithm shows that temperatures over the Atlantic TC genesis region can be depressed by more than 1-degree Celsius due to the presence of significant SAL aerosols, and that there is a distinct trend in forcing since the start of the record. Satellite data set information:


Information and data from this 25-year climatology can be found at http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/clavr/index.html


Carlson, T. N., and J. M. Prospero (1972), J. Appl. Meteorol., 11, 283– 297.

Dunion, J. P., and C. S. Velden (2004), Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 85(3), 353–365.

Evan, A. T., J. Dunion, J. Foley, A. Heidinger & C. Velden (2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19813, doi:10.1029/2006GL026408.

Karyampudi, V. M., et al. (1999), Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 80, 1045– 1076.
Member Since: 10.08.2005 Posts: 156 Comments: 36167
699. Floodman
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:42 (GMT)
Quoting Patrap:
We were promised flying car's when we were little in da 60's.

We want da flying cars.


And moon bases...flying cars and moon bases. Anything else we were cheated on, kids?
Member Since: 2.08.2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 9922
698. jeffs713
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:42 (GMT)
Quoting atmoaggie:

Going along with could be, etc., yeah, that is possible...DURING THE DAY. At night, less humidity = cooler. (You know this ;-)

Net effect? Haven't the foggiest.

Net effect would depend on the time of year, and how well the overall air temps translate to the SSTs. If the water is warmer than the air, and winds are more or less calm, you stand a chance at having fog, which *really* throws sand into the gears. (pun fully intended)
Member Since: 3.08.2008 Posts: 16 Comments: 5793
697. Patrap
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:41 (GMT)
The link you clicked is taking you outside of Weather Underground.


#695 says

Click okay only if you trust this link:

[http://www.hepcatwilly.com/uploads/media/Miracles2000.pdf]

Dr Chandra..Im scared

Will I dream?
Member Since: 3.07.2005 Posts: 415 Comments: 125715
696. Floodman
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:40 (GMT)
Quoting Patrap:


"U betcha"..


She's a good case in point...LOL
Member Since: 2.08.2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 9922
695. TampaTom
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:40 (GMT)
Y'all want to read something off the wall?

Popular Mechanic's view of what the new millennium will look like (published in 1950).


And, no, you won't get a virus from this!
Member Since: 20.06.2005 Posts: 22 Comments: 1050
694. atmoaggie
24. maaliskuuta 2010 klo 19:38 (GMT)
Quoting jeffs713:

If I may toss this in, wouldn't the dust also cause a marked decrease in precip for that area, which could also increase the temperatures (due to a lower humidity % short term, and less cooling effect from trees and other photosynthetic plant life long-term)?

Going along with could be, etc., yeah, that is possible...DURING THE DAY. At night, less humidity = cooler. (You know this ;-)

Net effect? Haven't the foggiest.
Member Since: 16.08.2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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