Disturbance 92L getting more organized; storm surge basics explained

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 25. elokuuta 2009 klo 14:06 (GMT)

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A tropical wave (92L) with an increasing amount of heavy thunderstorm activity is located a few hundred miles northeast of Puerto Rico, and is tracking west-northwest at 20 mph. Recent visible satellite imagery shows some increased organization of the storm, with upper-level outflow on the north side and a hint of a surface circulation trying to form near 22N 62W. However, the disturbance is moving underneath an upper-level cold-cored low pressure system, and this upper-level low is generating 20 - 30 knots of wind shear due the strong upper-level winds from the west. The upper low is also dumping cold, dry air into 92L, and this is retarding development of the storm. Dry air is getting ingested into 92L's thunderstorms and creating strong downdrafts that are robbing 92L of heat and moisture. These downdrafts are creating surface arc clouds that spread out from where the downdraft hits the ocean surface (Figure 1). Nevertheless, 92L appears determined to become a tropical depression over the next day or two, and NHC is giving 92L a high (greater than 50% chance) of developing into a tropical depression by Thursday morning.


Figure 1. Visible satellite image for 9:15 am EDT 8/25/09. Dry air from an upper-level low is getting sucked into 92L's thunderstorms, creating strong downdrafts that appear as arc clouds that spread away from where the downdraft hits the surface.

As 92L moves underneath the center of the upper low, wind shear may decline below 20 knots, and this is expected to occur by tonight. The lower shear may allow more development, and the Hurricane Hunters are on call to fly the storm this afternoon, if needed. The upper-level low is expected to move west-southwest over the next two days, and will continue to interfere with the development of 92L through Thursday. By Friday, when 92L should be several hundred miles off the coast of South Carolina, The upper-level low may be far enough south of 92L that the disturbance will find itself in a region with light upper level anticyclonic winds, which would favor more rapid development. A strong trough of low pressure will be approaching the U.S. East Coast at that time, and all of the models predict that this trough will be strong enough to turn 92L to the north. The models disagree substantially on how close 92L will be to the coast at that time, with several models bringing the storm ashore over North Carolina on Friday night and over New England on Saturday night, and other models keeping the storm out to sea. The intensity of 92L at that time is also problematic, with the HWRF model calling for a weak 40 mph tropical storm, and other models predicting a stronger tropical storm. Keep tuned.

Elsewhere in the Atlantic
The GFS model predicts the development of a tropical wave coming off the coast of Africa late this week.

Storm surge basics
I've developed an extensive set of web pages dealing with storm surge, which will include detailed storm surge inundation maps for the entire U.S. coast for each Saffir-Simpson Category hurricane. I'll be running portions of this material in my blog this week, and plan to release the full set of storm surge pages next week.

If you live near the ocean, the storm surge is the most dangerous part of a hurricane's hazards. The high death tolls of the ten deadliest U.S. hurricane disasters, including the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 (over 8000 killed), the Lake Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928 (2500 killed), and Hurricane Katrina of 2005 (1833 killed), were primarily due to the storm surge. The storm surge is water that is pushed onto shore by a hurricane. It is rarely a "wall of water" as often claimed, but rather a rise of water that can be as rapid as several feet in just a few minutes. The storm surge moves with the forward speed of the hurricane--typically 10 - 15 mph. This wind-driven water moving at 10 - 15 mph has tremendous power. A cubic yard of sea water weighs 1,728 pounds--almost a ton. A one-foot deep storm surge can sweep your car off the road, and it is difficult to stand in a six-inch surge. Compounding the destructive power of the rushing water is the large amount of floating debris that typically accompanies the surge. Trees, pieces of buildings, and other debris float on top of the storm surge and act as battering rams that can cave in any buildings unfortunate enough to stand in the way. If you receive an evacuation order for a hurricane storm surge, it is a very good idea to get out sooner rather than later. The storm surge can begin to rise a day before the storm hits, cutting off escape routes when low-lying highways are flooded. This is particularly true along the Gulf of Mexico shore.


Figure 1. Hurricane Katrina's storm surge pours over the 8-foot high north levee of the MRGO/Intra-Coastal Canal, directly under the Paris Road Bridge in eastern New Orleans. The photo was taken by Dan McClosky, the manager of Entergy's Michoud Power Plant. According to an interview at wwltv.com, "there were waves up on top of that, that were probably 15 to 18 foot on top of what you saw from the hurricane protection levee that was out there," McClosky said. Mike Collins of Austin, Texas has put together a nice in-depth description of this photo, which was judged as being authentic on the hoax debunking web site snopes.com.

The storm surge is created by wind, waves, and low pressure
There are three mechanisms that contribute to the storm surge:

1) The action of the winds piling up water (typically more than 85% of the surge).
2) Waves pushing water inland faster than it can drain off. This is called wave set-up, and is not forecast by the SLOSH model as of 2009. Wave set-up is typically 5 - 10% of the surge.
3)The low pressure of a hurricane sucking water higher into the air near the eye (typically 5 - 10% of the surge).

The storm surge depends greatly upon the size and intensity of a hurricane, the angle that it approaches the shore at, how deep the water is close to shore (the slope of the seabed at the coastline), and how fast the hurricane is moving.


Figure 2. Depiction of a fifteen foot hurricane storm surge occurring at high tide of two feet about mean sea level, creating a seventeen foot storm tide. Note that there are 10-foot waves on top of the 17-foot storm tide, so the external high water mark (HWM) left on the outside of structures by this hurricane could be 27 feet or higher. Image credit: NOAA SLOSH Display Training Manual (PDF File).

Definitions: storm tide, storm surge, high water mark
The storm surge is how high above current sea level the ocean water gets. The number we are most interested in regarding storm surge is how many feet above mean sea level (MSL) inundation will occur. This number is the storm tide, not the storm surge. The storm tide is the height of the storm surge above mean sea level (MSL), corrected for the tide. For example, in a location where high tide is two feet higher than mean sea level, and low tide is two feet lower than mean sea level, a 15-foot storm surge would cause a 17-foot storm tide if the hurricane hit at high tide or a 13-foot storm tide at low tide. Keep in mind that on top of the storm surge will be large waves capable of causing severe flooding and battering damage, and these waves are not included in storm surge forecasts. The waves on top of the storm tide break when they reach shallow water, and create an external high water mark (HWM) on structures. The high water mark can be much higher than the storm surge or storm tide. For example, the maximum storm surge of Hurricane Katrina was 27.8 feet in Pass Christian, MS (measured inside a building where waves couldn't reach). However, the highest high water mark was much higher--34.1 feet on the outside of a building in Biloxi, MS, where a high tide of about 1 foot combined with 11-foot high waves on top of the 22-foot storm surge to create the 34.1 foot high water mark.


Figure 3. High water marks on East Ship Island, Mississippi, after Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Left: Bark stripped off a tree with salt-burned pine trees in the background (note the 25 ft (7.65 m) long survey rod for scale). Right: Massive beach and over wash erosion illustrated by damaged and snapped pine trees along the beach. Image credit: Fritz et al., 2007, "Hurricane Katrina storm surge distribution and field observations on the Mississippi Barrier Islands" (PDF File), Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2007.03.015.

I'll have an update this afternoon.

Jeff Masters


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689. winter123
26. elokuuta 2009 klo 00:13 (GMT)
Quoting IKE:
UPDATED BLOG!


LAST!1
Member Since: 29.07.2006 Posts: 28 Comments: 1762
688. IKE
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:21 (GMT)
UPDATED BLOG!
Member Since: 9.06.2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
687. hydrus
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:13 (GMT)
Quoting WxLogic:
I've noticed for 1 that there's a "perception" of rotation... but I can't just help to shake the feeling that there could be a new LLC taking shape further W ~23N67.5W.

Of course I could be wrong and tonight during DMAX the convective cluster further to the E takes over and/or improves... but just wanted to throw that though out there as I'm not fully convinced that the current convective cluster will last long.
I ditto your post.
Member Since: 27.09.2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 19606
686. tornadodude
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:12 (GMT)
Quoting saintsfan06:
Live in Metairie, LA and have not had a "cool" front come through in the last 20 years before the third week in September. (The first cool front ALWAYS comes thru the week of my sons B-Day) So this is not the norm!!


yeah, i agree, i live in indiana, but it has been getting close to 50 every night here lately, these cooler temps really know how to give me a sore throat :/
Member Since: 28.06.2006 Posts: 24 Comments: 8185
685. 900MB
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:09 (GMT)
Quoting StormW:
Before I leave for supper...for any folks wondering what the acronymn CAPE means that OSUWXGUY had in his post, it's short for

Convective Available Potential Energy.

I'll be on later.


Thanks Storm, enjoy!
Member Since: 11.06.2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 643
684. saintsfan06
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:09 (GMT)
Live in Metairie, LA and have not had a "cool" front come through in the last 20 years before the third week in September. (The first cool front ALWAYS comes thru the week of my sons B-Day) So this is not the norm!!
Member Since: 18.09.2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 170
683. WxLogic
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:05 (GMT)
I've noticed for 1 that there's a "perception" of rotation... but I can't just help to shake the feeling that there could be a new LLC taking shape further W ~23N67.5W.

Of course I could be wrong and tonight during DMAX the convective cluster further to the E takes over and/or improves... but just wanted to throw that though out there as I'm not fully convinced that the current convective cluster will last long.
Member Since: 14.08.2008 Posts: 4 Comments: 4881
682. taistelutipu
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:05 (GMT)
good evening everyone. Just popping in for a few. I'm awaiting Bill's visit to the British Isles. If I'm not totally mistaken, he's already at the doorstep, this morning at 900 UTC.

The latest satellite image shows that Bill has already reached Ireland only 11 hours later. Satellite image 2000 UTC and Rain Radar for the British Isles.

I'll let you know tomorrow how bad it was. Good night!
Member Since: 20.08.2007 Posts: 12 Comments: 623
681. GatorWX
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:03 (GMT)
Quoting IKE:
Landfall in 3 1/2 days on the NC coast w/92L on the 18Z NAM....looks like a pretty strong system...



a little too strong, NAM is crazy!! That ULL once sw of 92L or whatever it is at that point will still be throwing a good amount of shear its way, that is after 92 leaves the favorable area under and around the ULL. I think I would side with the HWRF model as far as intensity, although it may be a little too conservative, but probably close.
Member Since: 1.01.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 2386
680. tornadodude
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:03 (GMT)
Quoting StormW:
Before I leave for supper...for any folks wondering what the acronymn CAPE means that OSUWXGUY had in his post, it's short for

Convective Available Potential Energy.

I'll be on later.


thanks!!
Member Since: 28.06.2006 Posts: 24 Comments: 8185
676. jake436
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:01 (GMT)
Some are thinking that the GOM season is over because a couple of fronts have already come thru. I vividly remember in Aug '04 fishing a redfish tournament out of Grand Isle, LA. The night before the tournament, a cold front blew thru...much stronger than the one that just did. I mean, it was actually quite cool down there...had to wear long sleeves...and wished I had a jacket, because I was still cold.
-
Charley had already hit that year, but Ivan was still yet to come. (Jeanne and Frances too...but they weren't GOM storms)
-
Just because a couple of fronts have come thru does NOT mean the season is over. There were cold fronts prior to Opal in '95...and prior to Wilma in '05. Don't be fooled. Fact is, it is very possible...especially with the jet fuel in the GOM right now...that a storm could form DUE TO A COLD FRONT stalling and lingering in the GOM.
Member Since: 31.08.2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 271
675. IKE
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:01 (GMT)
Quoting TexasHurricane:


Why do you say that? 2 weeks?


High will build in...troughs won't be turning systems away from the lower SE USA.
Member Since: 9.06.2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
674. cyclonekid
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:00 (GMT)
Member Since: 14.07.2009 Posts: 51 Comments: 1715
673. IKE
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:00 (GMT)
NEW BLOG!
Member Since: 9.06.2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
672. TerraNova
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:00 (GMT)
Recon, overlayed with the latest visible image (full resolution):

Member Since: 30.07.2007 Posts: 76 Comments: 4062
671. TexasHurricane
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 21:00 (GMT)
Quoting IKE:
This is probably the last cold-front to move through the lower SE USA for awhile. Tropics may get interesting for the gulf-coast in about 2 weeks.


Why do you say that? 2 weeks?
Member Since: 2.07.2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 2811
670. winter123
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:58 (GMT)
Quoting fmbill:
18z NAM 84 hour



its an exact hurricane hanna #2. wow

Member Since: 29.07.2006 Posts: 28 Comments: 1762
669. antonio28
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:58 (GMT)
Quoting IKE:
San Juan,PR discussion...maybe this is the system the latest ECMWF is picking up on...

"NEXT WAVE IS
BEING FORECAST FOR MONDAY AND MONDAY NIGHT AND MODEL SOLUTIONS ARE
PROMISING MUCH BETTER MOISTURE WITH THIS SYSTEM."


ECMWF?? Oh No.
Member Since: 15.07.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 799
667. fmbill
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:55 (GMT)
Quoting Drakoen:
Observations from the recon indicate that 92L does not have a closed low level circulation.


Not a surprise. But, have they passed 23 67 yet? There seems to be some rotation in that area.

Member Since: 27.05.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 409
666. IKE
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:53 (GMT)
Landfall in 3 1/2 days on the NC coast w/92L on the 18Z NAM....looks like a pretty strong system...

Member Since: 9.06.2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
665. MississippiWx
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:53 (GMT)
Quoting Drakoen:
Observations from the recon indicate that 92L does not have a closed low level circulation.


Not surprising...92L still has a good ways to go.
Member Since: 15.07.2006 Posts: 17 Comments: 10157
663. fmbill
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:54 (GMT)
18z NAM 84 hour

Member Since: 27.05.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 409
662. OSUWXGUY
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:52 (GMT)
Quoting AllStar17:


Uh....? Shear is not bad now, and is continuing to lessen


Show me where the upper level winds are out of the east???

92L is moving west at 20mph or so. There are southerly or southwesterly winds over the top of it.

Storm relative shear is therefore AT LEAST 20 knots...which is not favorable for development. Not saying they won't become more favorable tomorrow as the models indicate...they're just NOT right now.
661. mobilegirl81
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:52 (GMT)
Good afternoon stormW. Just had some time to hang out a little. Still wondering what early to mid September has in store for gulf.
Member Since: 31.08.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 833
660. TerraNova
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:51 (GMT)
This portion of NWS NYC's 4:10 PM forecast discussion has a pretty good explanation and analysis of steering currents and 12z models for 92L...

.LONG TERM /FRIDAY NIGHT THROUGH TUESDAY/...
MODELS TRENDING TOWARDS BETTER AGREEMENT WITH POTENTIAL COASTAL
STORM FOR THE WEEKEND. 12Z ECMWF SUPPORTS USING HPC/TPC COORDINATED
POSITIONING (ACTUALLY ENDS UP AMAZINGLY CLOSE TO THOSE POSITIONS
WHICH WERE DERIVED COMPLETELY WITHOUT BENEFIT OF THE MODEL AT 16Z -
ITS ACTUALLY A BLEND OF THE 00Z CMC/00Z ECMWF/00Z ECMWF ENSEMBLE
MEAN SHIFTED TO THE EAST SLIGHTLY IN SOME DEFERENCE TO THE GFS/GEFS.

THIS TRACK WOULD TAKE THE COASTAL LOW JUST TO THE SE OF LONG ISLAND
SATURDAY NIGHT.

KEY TO THE FORECAST IS IMPACT OF THE CUTOFF LOW CURRENTLY DRIFTING
SW INTO LOUISIANA...AND THEN IS FORECAST TO STRENGTHEN AND HEAD
BACK EAST BY THE END OF THE WEEK. 12Z ECMWF NO LONGER HAS ISSUE THAT
00Z ECMWF HAD WITH MAKING THIS UPPER LOW THE DOMINATE SYSTEM...AND
ESSENTIALLY ABSORBING THE SURFACE CIRCULATION OF THE COASTAL LOW
WHILE MAINTAINING THE DISCREET 7H/5H VORT OFFSHORE. THE 12Z
ECWMF...LIKE THE 12Z CMC NOW JUST HAVE THIS CUTOFF LOW HELP STEER
THE COASTAL LOW TOWARDS THE COAST...BUT ULTIMATELY ABSORB IT INTO
THE STRONGER COASTAL SYSTEM. THE GFS IS LIKELY TO FAR EAST WITH ITS
SYSTEM AS IT HISTORICALLY UNDERESTIMATES THE WESTERN EXTENT/STRENGTH
OF THE MID-ATLANTIC SUB-TROPICAL RIDGE TO THE NORTH OF THE SYSTEM
(ALLOWING IT TO RECURVE TOO FAR EAST AND TOO QUICKLY).
Member Since: 30.07.2007 Posts: 76 Comments: 4062
659. atmoaggie
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:50 (GMT)
Quoting hydrus:
Red ants don,t drown.They just find something to climb on,or float on.

Want to hear something odd? 6 miles from Lake Pontchartrain in SE LA and I have never seen a fire ant in my yard. Never.
The black ants I have keep them out? Or is it because I only have 2 inches of top soil? (I do not live in an area that could be described as river floodplain...unless it were a river of clay)

Not that they bite much, but the ants I do have like to move into cars whenever the ground is sodden. The only really annoying part about that is when they move into the blower motor. Turn the AC on, enjoy your ant shower.
Member Since: 16.08.2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
658. Drakoen
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:50 (GMT)
Observations from the recon indicate that 92L does not have a closed low level circulation.
Member Since: 28.10.2006 Posts: 57 Comments: 29714
657. Gorty
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:50 (GMT)
How do you put up images?

Does anyone have a link for animation for future dry air, steering currents and wind shear? Thanks.
Member Since: 8.11.2008 Posts: 12 Comments: 1058
656. RayRayfromLa
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:51 (GMT)
Quoting IKE:
This is probably the last cold-front to move through the lower SE USA for awhile. Tropics may get interesting for the gulf-coast in about 2 weeks.
Member Since: 18.08.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 89
655. mobilegirl81
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:50 (GMT)
Quoting mobilegirl81:

Erika, Fred, and Henry are next through late sept.imo

Fred "Frederic" 30 years from sept12
Member Since: 31.08.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 833
653. OSUWXGUY
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:49 (GMT)
Quoting StormW:


That"s close to 60% RH


Relative humidity doesn't have anything to do with my point...

In Bill for instance, which had a favorably moist environment, here's a dropsonde:

Height of Reading 583m (1,913 ft)

Temp - 21.0°C (69.8°F) Dewpoint - 21.0°C (69.8°F)


So at 2000 feet (higher than the 1000 foot 59 dewpoint ob I showed) the dewpoint was 69.

You need high dewpoints for instability. CAPE with low 60 dewpoints (which is about right for 92L environment) in a tropical setting with weak lapse rates is ridiculously low if not zero.


652. marknmelb
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:48 (GMT)
Quoting gordydunnot:
Well center I am talking about looks to be at 21.5n 67.5w. I think it might have been the earlier mid level circulation but seems to have a circulation at the surface, using the visible and the rgb at the nhc 92l loop.


That's where I've been looking ...
Member Since: 17.07.2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 406
651. mobilegirl81
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:48 (GMT)
Quoting IKE:
San Juan,PR discussion...maybe this is the system the latest ECMWF is picking up on...

"NEXT WAVE IS
BEING FORECAST FOR MONDAY AND MONDAY NIGHT AND MODEL SOLUTIONS ARE
PROMISING MUCH BETTER MOISTURE WITH THIS SYSTEM."

Erika, Fred, and Henry are next through late sept.imo
Member Since: 31.08.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 833
650. cyclonekid
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:48 (GMT)
Quoting Relix:


Huh.... oops. I had an old SAL map opened I see =P. Well, that should give the wave enough time to turn into something. The vorticity is there as well.

That's ok...it happens. ;) LOL
Member Since: 14.07.2009 Posts: 51 Comments: 1715
649. IKE
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:48 (GMT)
This is probably the last cold-front to move through the lower SE USA for awhile. Tropics may get interesting for the gulf-coast in about 2 weeks.
Member Since: 9.06.2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
648. Relix
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:47 (GMT)
I am 80% sure we at PR will get smacked by a system this year =(
Member Since: 3.08.2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 2639
646. gordydunnot
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:47 (GMT)
Well center I am talking about looks to be at 21.5n 67.5w. I think it might have been the earlier mid level circulation but seems to have a circulation at the surface, using the visible and the rgb at the nhc 92l loop.
Member Since: 18.08.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 3109
644. IKE
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:46 (GMT)
San Juan,PR discussion...maybe this is the system the latest ECMWF is picking up on...

"NEXT WAVE IS
BEING FORECAST FOR MONDAY AND MONDAY NIGHT AND MODEL SOLUTIONS ARE
PROMISING MUCH BETTER MOISTURE WITH THIS SYSTEM."
Member Since: 9.06.2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
642. mobilegirl81
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:45 (GMT)
Quoting RayRayfromLa:
The weather is really weird here in South Louisiana. We have been in the low to mid 60's for the last 4 mornings. The low temps are breaking records everyday here. Never in the mid 60's in August.

2004 was a cool late august
Member Since: 31.08.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 833
641. atmoaggie
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:44 (GMT)
Quoting IKE:
My yard is infested with ants. Never seen them this bad. The cooler/drier weather seems to have helped with them. They love hot/humid weather.

From the NO,LA. extended discussion....

"LONG TERM...
FRI THRU MON...GLOBAL MODELS DEVELOP SOME TYPE OF TROPICAL SYSTEM
MOVING NWD NEAR/OFFSHORE EASTERN SEABOARD. AT THE SAME TIME A DEEP
MID LEVEL VORTEX ROTATES THROUGH THE GREAT LAKES DEEPENING THE
MEAN TROUGH EXTENDING TO THE LOWER MS VALLEY. THIS SCENARIO SHOULD
ALLOW FOR ANOTHER FRONT TO MOVE TOWARD THE NORTHERN GULF COAST IN
THE SUNDAY/MONDAY TIME FRAME. MOISTURE SHOULD DEEPEN AHEAD OF
FRONT WITH SCATTERED SHOWERS/TSTMS EXPECTED IN ADVANCE OF THE
FRONT. AT THE CURRENT TIME...MODELS INDICATE BOUNDARY SHOULD COME
INTO THE COASTAL AREAS LATE SUNDAY."


WOW! Another front not stalling out before SE LA? I wonder when the last time was that SE LA got a cold front through to the gulf in each July, Aug, and Sept. Not recently, I assure you all.

Keep 'em coming. As long as there is no cut-off low to develop, those things are hurricane-proof force-fields.
Member Since: 16.08.2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
640. RayRayfromLa
25. elokuuta 2009 klo 20:44 (GMT)
The weather is really weird here in South Louisiana. We have been in the low to mid 60's for the last 4 mornings. The low temps are breaking records everyday here. Never in the mid 60's in August.
Member Since: 18.08.2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 89

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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